Adrenal Gland and Lung Lesions in Gulf of Mexico Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) Found Dead following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill
Published: May 20, 2015 •DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126538
A northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) cetacean unusual mortality event (UME) involving primarily bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama began in February 2010 and continued into 2014. Overlapping in time and space with this UME was the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, which was proposed as a contributing cause of adrenal disease, lung disease, and poor health in live dolphins examined during 2011 in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. To assess potential contributing factors and causes of deaths for stranded UME dolphins from June 2010 through December 2012, lung and adrenal gland tissues were histologically evaluated from 46 fresh dead non-perinatal carcasses that stranded in Louisiana (including 22 from Barataria Bay), Mississippi, and Alabama. UME dolphins were tested for evidence of biotoxicosis, morbillivirus infection, and brucellosis. Results were compared to up to 106 fresh dead stranded dolphins from outside the UME area or prior to the DWH spill. UME dolphins were more likely to have primary bacterial pneumonia (22% compared to 2% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003) and thin adrenal cortices (33% compared to 7% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003). In 70% of UME dolphins with primary bacterial pneumonia, the condition either caused or contributed significantly to death. Brucellosis and morbillivirus infections were detected in 7% and 11% of UME dolphins, respectively, and biotoxin levels were low or below the detection limit, indicating that these were not primary causes of the current UME. The rare, life-threatening, and chronic adrenal gland and lung diseases identified in stranded UME dolphins are consistent with exposure to petroleum compounds as seen in other mammals. Exposure of dolphins to elevated petroleum compounds present in coastal GoM waters during and after the DWH oil spill is proposed as a cause of adrenal and lung disease and as a contributor to increased dolphin deaths.
In summary, UME dolphins had a high prevalence of thin adrenal gland cortices (especially in Barataria Bay dolphins) and primary bacterial pneumonia. These findings are consistent with endocrinologic and pulmonary-based observations of live bottlenose dolphins from health assessments in Barataria Bay during 2011 . Previously documented or suspected contributing factors for GoM UMEs (marine biotoxins, morbillivirus, and brucellosis) were not supported by this study as contributors to the ongoing UME. Due to the timing and nature of the detected lesions, we hypothesize that contaminants from the DWH oil spill contributed to the high numbers of dolphin deaths within this oil spill’s footprint during the northern GoM UME following the DWH oil spill. Direct causes of death likely included: 1) affected adrenal gland cortices, causing chronic adrenal insufficiency, 2) increased susceptibility to life-threatening adrenal crises, especially when challenged with pregnancy, cold temperatures, and infections, and 3) increased susceptibility to primary bacterial pneumonia, possibly due to inhalation injury, aspiration of oil, or perturbations in immune function.
Deepwater Horizon oil spill linked to Gulf of Mexico dolphin deaths Animals suffered from adrenal and lung problems that are consistent with exposure to petroleum.
Allie Wilkinson 20 May 2015 Large numbers of dead dolphins began washing ashore in Alabama, Louisiana and Mississippi in 2010.
More than 1,300 bottlenose dolphins have stranded themselves in the northern Gulf of Mexico since early 2010. Research now links this unusual mortality event to the massive Deepwater Horizon oil spill.
The spike in dolphin deaths began shortly before the spill in April 2010, and scientists have struggled to understand whether the two events are related. A study published on 20 May in PLoS ONE finds that many of the dead animals had lung and adrenal-gland lesions that are consistent with exposure to petroleum compounds1.
That led the study's authors to conclude that the Deepwater Horizon spill probably drove the mass deaths. The study builds on a 2011 assessment of live dolphins in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, that revealed widespread adrenal and lung disease and general poor health2. The spill, which began with the explosion of a BP drilling rig, caused heavy and prolonged oiling in the bay.
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Wednesday, March 26, 2014
Deepwater Horizon crude oil impacts the developing hearts of large predatory pelagic fish
Saturday, March 22, 2014
Barge and Ship Collide off Texas City oil leaking into Galveston Bay
SEE UPDATES THROUGHOUT THIS BLOG DOWN BELOW...
Tuesday, March 25, 2014
Galveston Bay Oil Spill and the IKE dike VS Rice dike
Monday, July 5, 2010
B.P. Gulf Oil Spill Tar Balls Hit Texas Beaches Galveston and Bolivar
GALVESTON, Texas, July 5, 2010
Gulf Oil Spill Tar Balls Hit Texas Beaches
State Says Responders Have Recovered About 35 Gallons of Waste Material Tainted by Oil on Beaches
(AP) A top Texas official said Monday that tar balls from the Gulf oil spill have been found on state beaches, marking the first known evidence that gushing crude from the Deepwater Horizon well has now reached all the Gulf states.
Special Section: Disaster in the Gulf
Land Commissioner Jerry Patterson said two crews were removing tar balls found on the Bolivar Peninsula and Galveston Island on Sunday.
"We've said since day one that if and when we have an impact from Deepwater Horizon, it would be in the form of tarballs," Patterson said in a news release. "This shows that our modeling is accurate. Any Texas shores impacted by the Deepwater spill will be cleaned up quickly and BP will be picking up the tab."
The state said responders have recovered about 35 gallons of waste material tainted by the oil from the two sites.
Signs of landfall by oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill had previously only been reported in Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and the Florida Panhandle.
The distance between the western-most reach of the spill in Texas and the eastern-most reports of oil in Florida is about 550 miles.
I see right out of the starting gates they are wanting to blame the tankers on bringing this B.P. oil globs to our Texas beaches. so, back to my question (part of this was omitted in the Galveston Daily News comment submission that was published due to comment length limit), BUT WHAT ABOUT Galveston Bay and all it's estuaries ?
Sunday, May 30, 2010
DO WE NEED AN IKE DIKE, OR A B.P. DIKE, OR BOTH